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Paper Title
Study on Rainwater Harvesting at Domestic Level in Some Fluoride Affected Areas of Bihar
  Sanjay Khanna,  Dr. Arvind Kumar Nag

Ground water source is the major source for various purposes in most parts of the world. Presence of low or high concentration of certain ions is a major issue as they make the groundwater unsuitable for various purposes. Fluoride is one such ion that causes health problems in people living in more than twenty five country around the world. Fluoride concentration of at least 0.6 mg/l is required for human consumption as it will help to have stronger teeth and bones. Consumption of water with fluoride concentration above 1.5 mg/l results in acute to chronic dental fluorosis where the tooth become coloured from yellow to brown. Skeletal fluorosis which causes weakness and bending of the bones also results due to long term consumption of water containing high fluoride. Presence of low or high concentration of fluoride in groundwater is because of natural or anthropogenic causes or a combination of both. Natural sources are associated to the geological conditions of an area. Several rocks have fluoride bearing minerals like apatite, fluorite, biotite and hornblende. The weathering of these rocks and infiltration of rainfall through it increases fluoride concentration in groundwater. Fluoride which is present in high concentration in volcanic ash is readily soluble in water and forms another natural source. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilisers and combustion of coal. Phosphate fertilisers contribute to fluoride in irrigation lands. Coal which is a potential source of fluoride is used for combustion in various industries and in brick kilns. The aerial emission of fluoride in gaseous form during these activities reaches the surface by fall out of particulate fluorides and during rainfall they percolate with the rainwater thus reaching the groundwater table. Also the improper disposal of fly ash on ground surface contributes to fluoride in groundwater. Since ingestion of high fluoride has a long term effect on human health it is essential to monitor its concentration in groundwater used for drinking periodically and take steps to bring them within the permissible range of 0.6 to 1.5 mg/l. There are several methods available for the removal of fluoride from groundwater which is insitu or exsitu. To dilute the groundwater contaminated with fluoride, artificial recharging structures can be built in suitable places which will decrease its concentration. Rainwater harvesting through existing wells also will prove effective to reduce the groundwater fluoride concentration. Exsitu methods which are conventional treatment methods like adsorption, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, coagulation and precipitation etc. can be practiced at community level or at households to reduce fluoride concentration before ingestion. Each method depends on the local conditions of the region such as the quality of groundwater and the source of contamination whether it is natural or anthropogenic. Fluoride contamination being a prominent and widespread problem in several parts of the world and as causes for this are mostly natural and unpreventable, educating the people and defluorinating the groundwater before consumption are essential for a healthy world.

Keywords- Storage tank, Drinking water, Household, Rainwater, Ground water recharge, Fluoride.
Publication Details
Unique Identification Number - IJEDR1903103
Page Number(s) - 594-597
Pubished in - Volume 7 | Issue 3 | September 2019
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) -   
Publisher - IJEDR (ISSN - 2321-9939)
Cite this Article
  Sanjay Khanna,  Dr. Arvind Kumar Nag,   "Study on Rainwater Harvesting at Domestic Level in Some Fluoride Affected Areas of Bihar", International Journal of Engineering Development and Research (IJEDR), ISSN:2321-9939, Volume.7, Issue 3, pp.594-597, September 2019, Available at :
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